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Eight Great Sights of Yanjing  - Eight Best Sceneries of Beijing - Yanjing Eight Sceneries  
燕京八景

Top Eight Scenic Spots of Yanjing have been known since Jin Dynasty  (1115–1234).  Yanjing (Chinese: 燕京) is and has
been an informal name for Beijing, a reference to the ancient State of Yan that existed here during the Zhou Dynasty.  The
Eight Great Sights of Yanjing are places of historic interest and scenic beauty in and around Beijing. Each of them has a
name in which their particular qualities are summarized in lyrical four character phrases.

  • "Tai Ye Qiu Feng" (Chinese: 太液秋风): Taiye Lake in Autumn Breeze
  • "Qiong Dao Chun Yin" (Chinese: 琼岛春阴): Jade Islet in Spring
  • "Jin Tai Xi Zhao" (Chinese: 金台夕照):  The Golden Terrace in the Glow of the Setting Sun
  • "Ji Men Yan Shu" (Chinese: 蓟门烟树): Misty Trees in Jimen (Trees Enveloped in Mist at the Ancient City of Jizhou )
  • "Xi Shan Qing Xue" (Chinese: 西山晴雪): West Hills after Snow  
  • "Yu Quan Chui Hong" (Chinese:玉泉垂虹): Rainbow Over the Jade Spring
  • "Lu Gou Xiao Yue" (Chinese: 卢沟晓月): Moonlight over the Lugou (Marco Polo) Bridge  
  • "Ju Yong Die Cui" (Chinese: 居庸叠翠): Juyongguan Great Wall in Green
  • "Taiyeqiufeng" (Chinese: 太液秋风):  Taiye Lake
    (Now ZhongNanHai) in Autumn Breeze

Zhongnanhai, central headquarter of Chinese government,
is known as Taiye, or the "Great Secretion"  in the Qing
Dynasty.  A stone tablet in the Pavilion of Clouds on the
Water (Shuiyunxie) in the Central Lake (Zhonghai) bears
the Emperor Qianlong's inscription "太液秋风
".  The open-
air pavilion stands on an island in the lake amidst the
loveliest surroundings: bright white clouds are reflected on
the water; the pavilion rests on the lake like a lotus
blossoms permeates the air. This fine scene is lyrically
described in the poem "The Pavilion of Clouds on the
Water in Early Autumn" by the Qing poet Zhu Yizun: "In the
blazing heat of autumn, a cool breeze at noon stirs the air.
The lotus leaves bob in the ripples and sweet pea flowers
bloom after fresh rains. The bridge casts gentle shadows in
the clear cool river. In the evening light, the mountains take
on added beauty as blue and gold reflections from the
palace swell in the water's surface."
Tai Ye Qiu Feng
  • "Qiong Dao Chun Yin" (Chinese: 琼岛春阴):
    Jade Islet in Spring

The site known as "Jade Islet in  Springtime" is located on
the eastern slope of Jade Islet (Qiongdao) in
Beihai Park.
Here, the buildings are few while trees abound creating an
air of tranquility and solitude. In 1751, Emperor Qianlong
was so moved by the scene that he had a stone tablet
inscribed with the name of the site erected in the shade of
the trees. Two winding paths lead up from the tablet to the
Spring View Pavilion (Jianchunting) and the Corridor for
Viewing Paintings (Kanhualang). As you meander through
the corridor, the view closely resembles a landscape
painting.
  • "Jin Tai Xi Zhao" (Chinese: 金台夕照):  The
    Golden Terrace in the Glow of the Setting Sun

The Golden Terrace is situated at the former Miao Family
Estate near the Altar of the Sun (Ritan Park). In the Qing
Dynasty, this area originally served as frill grounds for the
Manchurian and Mongolian troops of the Emblazoned White
Banner. It is said that there was once a tall platform called
the "golden Terrace" within the grounds, and that on spring
and autumn evenings, the sunlight would continue to fall on
this terrace for a few moments after the sun had set. This
was, of course, a natural phenomenon, but when Emperor
Qianlong came here on an inspection tour, he was
disturbed by the strange spectacle. Enquiring after the
name of the place, the emperor became worried that a site
so well endowed by nature would bring its owners
inordinate good fortune and feared that this would threaten
the supremacy of the Qing court. He therefore ordered the
name "Miao Family Estate" (Miaojiadi) changed to "The
Golden Terrace in the Glow of the Setting Sun," and
erected a stone tablet to record this. In this manner the last
of the "Eight Great Sights" acquired its present name. The
original inscription on the stone tablet in the drill ground
conveyed the emperor's wish that he Manchus and
Mongols should unite in assuring the prosperity of China.
Jimenyanshu
  • "Ji Men Yan Shu" (Chinese: 蓟门烟树): Misty
    Trees in Jimen (Trees Enveloped in Mist at the
    Ancient City of Jizhou )

This spot is reputed the site of the ancient city of Jizhou,
also called Jiqiu and popularly named the "Earthen Walls"
(Tucheng). The remains date from the Liao and Yuan
dynasties and are situated about four kilometers northwest
of the Deshengmen Gate. The ancient city walls and
buildings of Jizhou have all disappeared, and all that remain
are two long stretches of earthen mounds that mark the
former gateway into the city. From the Ming Dynasty
onwards this spot has often been extolled in poetry, and on
the site itself there is a stone tablet inscribed in the
calligraphy of the Qing Emperor Qianlong with the four-
character phrase, which gives the place its title.
Xishanqingxue
  • "Xi Shan Qing Xue" (Chinese: 西山晴雪): West
    Hills after Snow  

To find the spot known as "The Western Hills Shimmering in
Snow" in the
Fragrant Hills Park one must turn northwards
after reaching the Halfway Pavilion and then climb upwards
past the Cave Facing the Sun (Chaoyangdong). The spot
was originally one of the "28 Scenic Beauties of Xiangshan
Park" and known as the "Grotto of Fragrant Mists"(
Xiangwuku). The stone pillar on which the four characters
"Western Hills Shimmering in Snow" are inscribed in the
calligraphy of Emperor Qianlong stands on the rocky slope
to the north of the grotto. Here on a winter day, as the
weather clears after a fresh snowfall, the glittering silver
mantle covering the numerous jutting peaks seems to
stretch away boundlessly, offering a spectacle of great
beauty.

Today there are differing opinions as to the true meaning of
the words "shimmering snow." Some believe that the "snow"
is in fact peach blossoms. Others maintain that it is simply
snow. Adherents of the latter interpretation cite a verse
from a Qing Dynasty anthology to back their claim: "In the
depths of winter, the sky clears after a fresh fall of snow. A
traveler gazes away into the distance at the cold crispness
of this winter scene. The trees and villages are transformed
and the Western Hills with white jade, so that from after they
look like silver. This silver blanket smothers the rugged
slopes and misty peaks so that they resemble an expanse
of plum blossoms, and sheer cliffs rise up like screens,
touching the sky. The light of dusk bathes the distant hills
and scattered clouds weave about the dark green pines. A
solitary woodcutter trudges his way home along the narrow
mountain path with only his broad rimmed hat visible
through the trees"
Yuquanchuihong
  • "Yu Quan Chui Hong" (Chinese:玉泉垂虹):
    Rainbow Over the Jade Spring

The Jade Spring was originally called the Baotu Spring in
Jude Spring Mountain (after a famous spring in Shandong
Province). However, when the Qing Emperor Qianlong
Wrote the phrase "Rainbow Floating over the Jade Spring"
and a stone tablet bearing this inscription was erected on
the spot, the site was henceforth known by this name.

The Jade Spring is famous for its pure cool waters, which
flow, in abundant supply from its underground source,
spurting from the dragon-head-shaped stone fountainhead
in a fine spray that resembles snowflakes. For this reason it
is also known as the "Snowflake Spring." In the Qing
Dynasty, the spring was praised as the "Finest Spring
Under Heaven," a description which seems fully deserved
when one witnesses it in its wonderful natural setting. This
mountain source flows down the mountain and feeds
Kunming Lake in
the Summer Palace and a number of the
other lakes in the city.
Lugouxiaoyue

Ever since Emperor Zhangzong of the Jin Dynasty (reigned
1190-1208) penned the phrase "The Moon over the Lugou
Bridge at Dawn," this site has been known by this poetic
name. Emperor Qianlong, who inscribed it upon a
commemorative tablet at the site, hence further spreading
its renown, adopted the title once more in the Qing
Dynasty. In those days, the scenery comprised only "a pale
moon over a river bridge" with a few "scattered clouds"
floating occasionally overhead. However, it attracted "so
many travelers passing by this spot that by early dawn the
air was filled with the clattering of horses hooves."

At daybreak nowadays, the lamps suspended on the bridge
and the stars gleam through the early morning mists,
sparkling on the clear waters of the river. A light wind sends
silvery ripples running across the water, making the pale
reflection of the moon on its surface quiver and dissolve-a
scene of truly poetic beauty. But as one strolls along the
bridge, stopping to lean over its parapet and gaze into the
distance, one will notice the first colors of early morning
appear on the horizon. Mountain peaks, treetops and tall
buildings are bathed in the rosy glow of the sun.
Juyongdiecui
  • "Ju Yong Die Cui" (Chinese: 居庸叠翠):
    Juyongguan Great Wall in Green

The first and finest of the "Eight Great Sights of Yanjing" is
the "
Great Wall Surrounded by Lush Greenery at the
Juyong Pass." This comprises a small river valley
approximately 15 kilometers long which is crossed by the
lofty peaks and lush mountain vegetation. The undulating
mountain tops stretches into the distance like leaping sea
waves, creating a scene of outstanding natural beauty. As
early as the Jin Dynasty, this spot was known by its present
title.

In some places, the valley is extremely narrow with only a
small passage through which the stream water can flow. At
these points the mountains loom overhead as if about to
cave in. Visitors are then tempted to turn back at this point,
since the valley looks quite impassable. If they do, however,
they will miss the experience of wonder that these imposing
rock formations inspire. Trees also abound in this area,
their red and white blossoms decorating the valley with
bright splashes of color against a background of lush green
leaves.
燕京八景

燕京八景是老北京著名的八处景点,又称“燕山八景”或“燕台八景”等,产生于金代明昌间,而后代文人纷纷题诗,遂名闻遐迩。这
八景名称历代也有变化,金代称:太液秋风、琼岛春阴、金台(道陵)夕照、蓟门飞雨、西山积雪、玉泉垂虹、卢沟晓月、居庸叠
翠。元明两代及清康熙朝燕京八景名目均与此八景景名大同小异,明代亦称燕台八景、京师八景、北京八景,清代亦称京畿八景,
清康熙年间尚有称“宛平八景”。明代李东阳于八景之外又增“南囿秋风”、“东郊时雨”并赋《十景》诗,又有“燕京十景”之说。清乾隆
十六年(1751年)清帝弘历御定八景为:太液秋风、琼岛春阴、金台夕照、蓟门烟树、西山晴雪、玉泉趵突、卢沟晓月、居庸叠
翠,当时均刻石立碑并有小序、诗文。燕京八景的出现,对于后来的风景点建设产生了巨大影响。从此之后,无论“十室之邑,三
里之城,五亩之园,以及琳宫梵宇,靡不有八景诗矣”。现代园林、庭院绿化亦借鉴燕京八景,建造景点,推动了园林建设的发
展。

燕京八景名称沿革

  金代:太液秋风 琼岛春阴 道陵夕照 蓟门飞雨 西山积雪 玉泉垂虹 卢沟晓月 居庸叠翠
  元代:太液秋波 琼岛春阴 道陵夕照 蓟门飞雨 西山霁雪 玉泉垂虹 卢沟晓月 居庸叠翠
  明代:太液睛波 琼岛春云 道陵夕照 蓟门烟树 西山霁雪 玉泉垂虹 卢沟晓月 居庸叠翠
  清代 (康熙年间):太液睛波 琼岛春云 道陵夕照 蓟门烟树 西山霁雪 玉泉流虹 卢沟晓月 居庸叠翠
  清代 (乾隆十六年):太液秋风 琼岛春阴 金台夕照 蓟门烟树 西山晴雪 玉泉趵突 卢沟晓月 居庸叠翠
  后增几景:南囿秋风 东郊时雨 银锭观山 西便群羊
太液秋风

此景位于今中南海(原名太液池)内东岸万善门旁。太液指的是皇家宫苑西苑,由北海、中海和南海三部分组成,太液秋风描述
的是西苑水域在秋季晴空下的景色,乾隆御书太液秋风碑位于中海东岸水云榭中。《燕京八景图》中记述说:"……天气晴明,日
月晃漾而波澜涟漪清澈可爱,故曰太液晴波。"乾隆诗中有"秋到农居爽籁生,玉湖澄碧画桥横"之句,故叫太液秋风。

乾隆御制诗释文:“微见商颸苹末生,镜栏玉蝀影中横。非关细雨频传响,何事平流忽有声。爽入金行闾阖表,波连瑶渚趯台瀛。
高秋文宴传佳话,已觉犁然今昔情”。
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琼岛春阴

琼岛春荫是对北海琼华岛春景的描述。这里建筑不多,但春景秀丽。树木成荫,苍翠欲滴;怪石奇峰,透剔嵯峨;绿树白塔,交相
辉印,别有意境;碧波环岛,莲叶亭亭,分外幽静。乾隆钦定该景原石碑原在今北海白塔山西坡悦心门前。乾隆五十一年(1786年)
迁到白塔山东侧现址。

乾隆御制诗释文:“艮岳移来石岌峨,千秋遗憾感怀多。依岩松翠龙鳞蔚,人牖篁新凤尾娑。乐意讵因逢胜赏,悦心端为得嘉禾。
当春最是耕犁急,每较阴晴发浩歌”。
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金台夕照

金台,即黄金台。金台典出于燕昭王筑黄金台广纳天下贤士的历史故事。公元前三世纪,燕昭王为礼贤下士所置之土台,上面放着千
金,聘请天下名士。目前有金台七八处。乾隆皇帝曾把石碑立在朝阳门外关东店附近,原苗家地教场东边半里的土丘上,今已无存。
1935年出版的《旧都文物略》中,还能见到石碑倒卧的照片。现在无任何遗迹了。

乾隆御制诗释文:“九龙妙笔写空蒙,疑是荒基西或东。要在好贤传以久,何妨存古托其中。豪辞赋鹜谁过客,博辨方孟任小童。遗
迹明昌重校检;睾然高望想流风”。
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蓟门烟树

此景位于今北三环蓟门桥南边。蓟门烟树指的西直门以北的元大都城墙遗址西段,这段城墙为夯土构建,元末明军攻陷大都后,将元
大都北侧城墙南移5里,蓟门烟树所指一段城墙遂遭荒废,在夯土城墙的遗址上树木生长,遂称蓟门烟 树。景名取自唐代诗人李益的
诗《秦城》:“惆怅秦城送独归,蓟门烟树远依依。秋空莫射南来雁,纵遗乘春更北飞”。乾隆御书蓟门烟树碑位於今北京电影学院附
近的元大都城墙遗址上。
  
乾隆御制诗释文:“十里轻杨烟霭浮,蓟门指点认荒丘。青帘贳酒于何少?黄士埋人即渐稠。牵客未能留远别,听鹂谁解作清游?梵
钟欲醒红尘梦,断续常飘云外楼”。
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西山晴雪

西山是指北京西郊连绵山脉的总称,是太行山的一支余脉。所说的雪景亦泛指此一带。香山是这一带典型的山峰,西山晴雪描述的是
在北京城内远眺冬季雪后西山山脉白色积雪的景色。乾隆御书西山晴雪碑位于香山公园香雾窟北侧岩石上。

乾隆御制诗释文:“久曾胜迹纪春明,叠嶂嶙峋信莫京。刚喜应时沾快雪,便数佳景入新晴。寒村烟动依林袅,古寺钟清隔院鸣。新
傍香山构精舍,好收积玉煮三清”。
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玉泉飞虹/玉泉趵突

此景位于北京玉泉山。玉泉山位於颐和园之西,玉泉山风景秀丽,泉水清澈,晶莹如玉,山以泉名,故名玉泉。金章宗于山麓建芙蓉
殿,辟为玉泉行宫。由于这里水清而碧,澄洁似玉,“以兹山之泉,逶迤曲折,蜿蜿然其流若虹”因而当初定名“玉泉垂虹”,成为燕京
八景之一。乾隆皇帝曾经赐名玉泉山泉水为天下第一泉。乾隆御书玉泉趵突碑位于玉泉山上的静明园中。

元代,引玉泉渚水注入昆明湖,沿金水河流入大都,作为宫城专用水源,一直沿袭到清初。元代陈孚、明代金幼孜均有 《玉泉垂
虹》诗。明代邹缉在《北京八景图》中说:“山有石洞三,一在山之西南,其下有泉,深浅莫测。一在山之阳,泉自山而出,鸣若杂
佩,色如素练,泓溦百 顷。鉴形万象,莫可拟极。一在山之根,有泉涌出,其味甘冽,门刻玉泉二字……。”他又同时赋诗,改“玉泉
垂虹”为“玉泉飞虹”,诗中描写到:“碧障云岩喷 玉泉,长流宁是瀑流悬。遥看素练明秋壑,却讶晴虹饮碧川。飞沫拂林空翠湿,激波
溅石碎珠圜。传闻绝顶芙蓉殿,犹记明昌避暑年。”

清代,康熙《宛平县志》改“玉泉飞虹”为“玉泉流虹”。乾隆初来时曾写《玉泉 垂虹》诗:“涌湍千丈落垂虹,风卷银涛一望中。声震
林梢趋众壑,光浮练影挂长空。跳波激石珠丸碎,溅沫飞花玉屑红。自此恩波流处处,公田时雨泽应同。”但 是乾隆皇帝后来又多次
观察后,认为泉水是从石缝中流出,并没有形成瀑布,不能叫“玉泉垂虹”,而泉水“喷雾如珠”,很像济南的“趵突泉”,所以改名为“玉
泉趵突”。乾隆十六年,他觉得“玉泉垂虹”不贴切,改名“玉泉趵突”并写诗说:“玉泉昔日此垂虹,史笔谁真感慨中。不改千秋翻趵
突,几曾百丈落云空!廊池 延月溶溶白,倒壁飞花淡淡红。笑我亦尝传耳食,未能免俗且雷同”。
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卢沟晓月

此景位于北京卢沟桥。卢沟即永定河,古来交通要津。金世宗1189年下令建桥,1192年(明昌三年)落成,命名广利桥。桥如长
虹,十一拱券门,四个华表,望柱上雕有大水石狮 485个。桥长266米,宽9米。古时交通不太方便,京城距此约是半天的路程。
送别京门,打尖住宿,来日早行。鸡鸣上路,尚见明月当空,大地似银,"卢沟桥上月如霜"。于是“晓月”的意境名传遐迩。卢沟晓
月的说 法自金代就有,金章宗亦曾经题写卢沟晓月御书碑,但该碑现已无存。乾隆御书卢沟晓月碑位于卢沟桥进京一侧桥头。

乾隆御制诗释文:“茅店寒鸡咿唔鸣,曙光斜汉欲参横。半钩留照三秋淡,一练分波平镜明。入定衲僧心共印,怀程客子影尤惊。
迩来每踏沟西道,触景那忘黯尔情?”
居庸叠翠

此景位于居庸关西南4公里处。居庸关又称军都关、蓟门关,是中国古代九大名关之一. 古时居庸关范围包括全部关沟峡谷。下端
沟口叫下口或夏口,也叫南口。关沟曲折而上。经居庸关、上关,直达北口──
八达岭。北沟是北京北部燕山山脉的缺口,山谷中
峰峦叠嶂,林木葱郁,山花烂漫,层林尽染,山水明媚,景致非凡,乾隆御书"居庸叠翠"碑就在此谷中部的叠翠山上。


乾隆御制诗释文:“断戌颓垣动接连,当时徒说固防边。洗兵玉垒曾无藉,守德金城信不穿。泉出石鸣常带冷,日含峰暖欲生烟。
鸣鞭阿那羊肠道,可较前兹获有田”。